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Status of Bovine Brucellosis in the Submitted Samples at Veterinary Research Institute from 2019 to 2021

Authors:

M.A.R. Priyantha ,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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P.S. Fernando,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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N. Liyanagunawardana,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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N.G.N. Samarakoon,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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D.M.S.N.D. Dissanayake,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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M.I. Wijemuni,

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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P.S. De Alwis

Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, LK
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Abstract

Bovine brucellosis is an economically significant disease in Sri Lanka due to reducing calves with abortion, reproductive disorders, reduced milk production in cattle and buffaloes. Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium and appears as a small coccobacillus of 0.6-1.5μm long and 0.5-0.7μm wide. Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka with multiple hosts, including cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and pigs. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) is the standard screening test for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in ruminants and confirmation is done by the Complement Fixation Test (CFT), which is the gold standard test for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in ruminants. In Sri Lanka, the CFT confirmation is only done at Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, as the national reference laboratory for brucellosis in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine the status of bovine brucellosis in the submitted sample to the Veterinary Research Institute during the period 2019 to 2021. The samples were received from herds with a recent history of abortion from 2019 to 2021. The serum samples were tested by RBPT and confirmation was done by CFT. Conventional bacteriological methods carried out the isolation and identification of Brucella abortus. PCR was carried out only for the confirmed isolates. The average annual percentage of bovine brucellosis in the herd with a history of abortions was varied from 19.4 -38.5, 1/3 of cattle and buffaloes with a history of abortion were diagnosed as brucellosis serologically. More than 60% of CFT positive samples each year were shown high antibody titre as 1:32, indicating actual incidence of disease in a suspected herd. Serologically positive animals were found in several administrative districts in the country, including dry zone and wet zone. Brucellosis was the main course of abortion in cattle and buffaloes in Sri Lanka for the samples that were submitted during 2019 – 2021 to the VRI. The current prevalence of bovine brucellosis is unknown since no countrywide surveillance is established. The sample submission had been badly affected by ongoing COVID 19 pandemics in the country. In summary, brucellosis is an endemic disease in the dry zone of the country, although single outbreaks have been reported in the upcountry during recent years. Bovine brucellosis was one of the most common causes of bovine abortion from 2019 to 2021 in Sri Lanka.
How to Cite: Priyantha, M. A. R., Fernando, P. S., Liyanagunawardana, N., Samarakoon, N. G. N., Dissanayake, D. M. S. N. D., Wijemuni, M. I., & De Alwis, P. S. (2021). Status of Bovine Brucellosis in the Submitted Samples at Veterinary Research Institute from 2019 to 2021. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, 13, 1888–1893. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/wjas.v13i0.27
Published on 30 Sep 2021.
Peer Reviewed

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